What is a Dry Port?
Dry Port is a Port far away from from any sea side. In another words a Dry Port is a place serving the functions of a port at a location which doesn't have a sea port for want of a seaboard. In ancient time there was a concept of ports at sea side.So all the industries in ancient time was developed near the sea or very big river connected with sea. On that time connectivity of seaport and hinterland of inner land was not very fast and easy.
But now times got changed. Today we have modern transport and logistics infrastructure. This modern logistics & transport infrastructure makes Dry Port concept successful for us. As the inland transport infrastructure developed and the industries also dispersed to serve the dual purpose of more equitable economic development of regions and proximity of industries to the source of raw materials and labour, need was felt to counter the disadvantages of distance from the seaport.
While the physical disadvantage of distance could not be compensated, efforts were made to provide matching facilities for handling. aggregation and dispersal of internationally traded cargoes at these inland locations enabling them to get most of the services that were available at the ports. This endeavor resulted in the development of the concept of Dry Ports. At Dry Ports within the constraints of distance from Sea Ports, facilities of handling storage, transport to the seaport and customs clearance are provided.
Containerization of cargo and and development of Multimodal Transport Operations makes the Dry Ports a reality and important infrastructure for international trade. Concept of Dry Port is highly suitable for landlocked countries and also for those industrial area which are far away from sea side.
Functions of a Dry Port
The functions and the concept of Dry Ports are better understood by understanding the function of a Sea Port. At Sea Port, the import cargo of the region is received by incoming ships, the ship is berthed and unloaded, the cargo is segregated for each consignee and stored awaiting customs clearance and delivery. Similarly the export cargoes from the region are aggregated, costumes and other formalities observed and completed and the goods are finally loaded on the appropriate outward bound vessels. Other admin and customer facilities with proper transport activities are also done in Sea Port.
The Dry Ports perform similar functions. But they receive import cargoes and dispatch export cargoes from or to Sea Port by proper Unit Rail connected to Sea Port. All documentation is done at Dry Port and transport to and from the Sea Port is organised.
Beside customs clearance and proper transport connections with seaports, there are several other activities and regulatory functions are also done at the dry ports. Other regulatory functions such as regulatory functions and monitoring control, ensuring receipt and remittance, pest and disease control, quality inspections, check on contraband and narcotics, etc are also done at dry ports.
The dry port also act as a point of transfer of cargoes from one mode to another mode of transport like road transport to rail transport or air transport etc.
You may understand the concept and activities of a Dry Port by this slide shows.
Dry Ports are inland cargo handling terminals. Dry Ports are always equipped with all the modern equipment which are important and compulsory for any Dry Port. Dry Ports can be in the same country which has a sea port or it can be in land locked country which has no sea port. These are generally located at places generating sufficient imports and exports for organizing viable and regular transport linkage to ports.
Facilities at Dry Ports
Dry Ports have generally Container Freight Station (CFS) where customs, transport and numbers of other clearing and forwarding agents are physically presented to facilitate cargo handling, storage, aggregation, segregation, clearance, documentations, receipt and dispatch of cargo from different mode of transport. Multimodal Transport facilities and providing Multimodal Transport Documents to the exporter are also doe by freight forwarder at the dry port. Offices of shipping agents, freight forwarders and MTOs are also located at Dry Ports. Since goods and containers are stored temporarily so, dry ports also have warehouse and storage area and also have Container Yard for storage of containers. Dry Ports also have container repair center for container repairing.
the facilities at dry port can vary considerably from place to place depending upon local requirements.
Minimum requirements at a Dry Port can be listed as given below.
- Required land for all activities with a proper fencing and secured exit- entry gate.
- Customs clearance facilities including minimum complement of personal.
- A big size of warehouse for storage and examination of goods by customs and other agencies.
- A big container yard area for placing and managing the container flow to and from the sea port.
- Offices for customs and dry port management and for other agencies such as clearing and forwarding agencies, shipping agents, freight forwarders, MTOs etc.
- Security services and lighting.
- Communication facilities such as phone, internet, etc.
- Labour and equipment for handling of containers and cargo.
- Fast transport connectivity with nearby seaport.
Additional facilities may also be provided, and indeed exist at most of the dry ports. These are:
- Bank, Post Office etc.
- Packaging and consolidation services.
- Fumigation services.
- Weighment facilities for cargo and containers.
- Container repair center.
- IT services, etc.
These are the functions and facilities are important for smooth activities at Dry ports.