CMR Convention


The CMR convention on the contract for the International carriage of the Goods  by Road ( CMR ) adopted in 1956 governs International Transport of goods by road . Under this convention the carrier is responsible for the act and omissions of his agents and servants and other persons  whose services he makes use of . He is liable loss of or damage to the goods occurring between the time when he takes over the goods and the time of delivery as well as for any delay in delivery . He shall however be relieved of such liability if the loss damage or delay was caused by any wrongful act on neglect of the consignor , the inherent vice of the goods or through circumstances which the carrier could not avoid and the consequence of which he was unable to prevent .

 In other way we can understand as The CMR Convention (full title Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road) is a United Nations convention that was signed in Geneva on 19 May 1956. It relates to various legal issues concerning transportation of cargo by road. It has been ratified by the majority of European states. As of 2013, it has been ratified by 55 states.

All the European countries are members of this Convention, and several other countries, such as Lebanon and Iran are members. Based on the CMR, the International Road Union (IRU) developed a standard CMR waybill. The CMR waybill is prepared in three languages. On the back is the text again in three languages. This aids the waybill in being accepted and recognized throughout Europe. Checked by customs and police, a transport document must be present when the shipment is transported. The document itself is not prescribed; there is a minimum of information required on the CMR. If hazardous substances are being shipped, some additional information is required, as described in ADR.

This consignment is completed by the sender. The consignment should only be completed with a ballpoint pen, typewriter or computer. The driver who uses the consignment should be familiar with the consignment, and with the waybill, able to inform the recipient about the importance of the various topics on the waybill.
The burden of proving that loss , damage or delay was due to cause for which the carrier was not resposible resets upon the carrier himself .

The CMR Convention , however has not been ratified by  most countries outside Europe . In those countries , transport of goods by Road is governed by National Law and Commercial Practices which vary from country to country .