About MIS

A management information system (MIS) provides information that organizations require to manage themselves efficiently and effectively. Management information systems are typically computer systems used for managing five primary components: 1.) Hardware, 2.) Software, 3.) Data (information for decision making), 4.) Procedures (design,development and documentation), and 5.) People (individuals, groups, or organizations). Management information systems are distinct from other information systems, in that they are used to analyze and facilitate strategic and operational activities. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design, implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information to improve efficiency and effectiveness of decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems. Most business schools (or colleges of business administration within universities) have an MIS department, alongside departments of accounting, finance, management, marketing, and sometimes others, and grant degrees (at undergrad, masters, and PhD levels) in MIS.

A management information system gives the business managers the information that they need to make decisions. Early business computers were used for simple operations such as tracking inventory, billing, sales, or payroll data, with little detail or structure (see EDP). Over time, these computer applications became more complex, hardware storage capacities grew, and technologies improved for connecting previously isolated applications. As more data was stored and linked, managers sought greater abstraction as well as greater detail with the aim of creating significant management reports from the raw, stored data. Originally, the term "MIS" described applications providing managers with information about sales, inventories, and other data that would help in managing the enterprise. Over time, the term broadened to include: decision support systems, resource management and human resource management, enterprise resource planning (ERP), enterprise performance management (EPM), supply chain management (SCM), customer relationship management (CRM), project management and database retrieval applications.
Management information systems provide a variety of information products to managers. Periodic Scheduled Reports are a traditional form of providing information to managers via a specified format designed to provide managers with information on a regular basis. Exception Reports are produced only when exceptional conditions occur. Exception reporting reduces information overload instead of overwhelming decision makers with periodic detailed reports of business activity. Demand Reports and Responses are available when the managers require immediate access to vital information. Web browsers, DBMS query languages, and report generators enable managers to get this information and not force them to wait for periodic detailed reports of business activity. Push Reporting is information that is pushed directly to the manager’s respective networked workstation. Webcasting software is being more frequently utilized to broadcast selective reports and other vital information.